Monitoring of CO2 sequestration projects for quantification and assurance of storage security is essential for the commercial deployment of this technology. Both traditional geophysical and novel non-seismic techniques need to be developed that allow for the quantitative observation of CO2 in the subsurface at precisions higher than currently exist. In addition methods need to be developed to take into account the impact of geochemical changes within the subsurface on geophysical parameters.
- The use of pressure measurements in the target sequestration reservoir, in the caprock, in overlying reservoirs, and vertically distributed throughout a monitoring well for plume tracking and quantification.
- Measurements of the isotopic composition of gases at the surface for low-level leakage monitoring.
- The use of isotopic measurements of fluids in the subsurface to monitor the movement of injected CO2.
- Integrated geophysical and geochemical modeling techniques for site characterization and predictive site performance.
- Characterization of the geophysical signatures of CO2 injection including simultaneous measurement of rock ultrasonic velocity, electrical conductivity, porosity, permeability, and fluid chemistry on sandstones, carbonates, coals, and shales.